There can be up to five different forms of verbs, usually referred to as V1, V2, V3, V4 and V5. Verbs are simply words that express action or a certain state of being.
The past participle of regular verbs is identical to the preterite (past tense) form, just by adding –ed (or –d in some cases) to the end of the root form of the verb. The past participle of irregular verbs is tricky and should be memorized.
|Infinitive (regular verb)||Present Simple||Past Simple||Past Participle|
|to explain||I explain||We explained||explained|
|You explain||You explained|
|He / She / It explains||They explained|
|Infinitive (irregular verb)||Present Simple||Past Simple||Past Participle|
|to fall||I fall||We fell||fallen|
|You fall||You fell|
|He / She / It falls||They fell|
Here are four common uses of past participles:
- The past participle is used with “have” auxiliaries(helping verbs) in active voice
Example: She has explained her attitude.
- The past participle is used after “be” auxiliaries in passive voice.:
Example: I was born in 1977.
- The past participle is sometimes used in a phrase to supply additional information.
Example: The ideas explained to the management are important.
- The past participle is sometimes used as an adjective.
Example: The received goods were sold.