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Conjugation German: lesen


Present

er liest

Simple past

er las

Present perfect

er hat gelesen

   
   


Conjugation of verb of the irregular verb [lesen]

Verb conjugation is a method of changing verbs from their infinitive forms. The changes, usually done through endings and auxiliary words, express grammatical categories related to the action or state being described, such as person, number, tense, aspect and mode. Verbs are divided into a number of classes according to their form of conjugation and may be assigned model patterns to help to create the correct forms.

There are simple verb forms (e.g. ich mache, ich machte) and compound verb forms that use an auxiliary verb (e.g. ich habe gemacht, ich werde machen).

There are 6 tenses in German in total. Two of them are simple: the present simple (Präsens) and the past simple (Präteritum). The other four tenses are compound, i.e. they combine an auxiliary verb and the infinitive or the past participle form of the main verb carrying the meaning. The compound tenses include the future simple (Futur I), the present perfect (Perfekt), the past perfect (Plusquamperfekt) and the future perfect (Futur II).

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Present simple – Präsens

ich
lese 
du
liest 
er/sie/es
liest 
wir
lesen 
ihr
lest 
sie/Sie
lesen 

Past simple – Präteritum

ich
las 
du
lasest; last 
er/sie/es
las 
wir
lasen 
ihr
last 
sie/Sie
lasen 

Present perfect – Perfekt

ich
habe gelesen 
du
hast gelesen 
er/sie/es
hat gelesen 
wir
haben gelesen 
ihr
habt gelesen 
sie/Sie
haben gelesen 

Past perfect – Plusquamperfekt

ich
hatte gelesen 
du
hattest gelesen 
er/sie/es
hatte gelesen 
wir
hatten gelesen 
ihr
hattet gelesen 
sie/Sie
hatten gelesen 

Future simple – Futur I

ich
werde lesen 
du
wirst lesen 
er/sie/es
wird lesen 
wir
werden lesen 
ihr
werdet lesen 
sie/Sie
werden lesen 

Future perfect – Futur II

ich
werde gelesen haben 
du
wirst gelesen haben 
er/sie/es
wird gelesen haben 
wir
werden gelesen haben 
ihr
werdet gelesen haben 
sie/Sie
werden gelesen haben 

Subjunctive of verb of the irregular verb [lesen]

The subjunctive (from the late Latin modus coniunctivus, translated as a form of sentence structure, derived from the Latin verb coniungere – to join).

The subjunctive is a special verb form that usually expresses that the action is conditional or hypothetical.

It expresses possible, probable, hypothetical, desired, dreaded or necessary actions (thus indicating the speaker’s attitude toward the action). It is a form used to express something imagined that may never happen. In particular, it marks the utterance as subjective, doubtful or uncertain.

In German, there is the subjunctive I and the subjunctive II.

The subjunctive I includes the present subjunctive (e.g. er sei, er habe), the future subjunctive and the perfect subjunctive.

The subjunctive I usually expresses someone else’s opinion, often unlikely from the speaker’s point of view (present indicative: Er sagt, dass niemand zu Hause ist. – He says that no one is at home. X present subjunctive: Er sagt, dass niemand zu Hause sei. – He says that (supposedly) no one is at home.).

The subjunctive II includes the past subjunctive (er wäre, er hätte) and the past perfect subjunctive.

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Subjunctive I: Present – Konjunktiv I

ich
lese 
du
lesest 
er/sie/es
lese 
wir
lesen 
ihr
leset 
sie/Sie
lesen 

Subjunctive I: Present perfect – Konjunktiv I

ich
habe gelesen 
du
habest gelesen 
er/sie/es
habe gelesen 
wir
haben gelesen 
ihr
habet gelesen 
sie/Sie
haben gelesen 

Subjunctive I: Future simple – Konjunktiv I: Futur I

ich
werde lesen 
du
werdest lesen 
er/sie/es
werde lesen 
wir
werden lesen 
ihr
werdet lesen 
sie/Sie
werden lesen 

Subjunctive I: Future perfect - Konjuktiv I: Futur II

ich
werde gelesen haben 
du
werdest gelesen haben 
er/sie/es
werde gelesen haben 
wir
werden gelesen haben 
ihr
werdet gelesen haben 
sie/Sie
werden gelesen haben 

Subjunctive II: Past simple – Konjunktiv II: Präteritum

ich
läse 
du
läsest 
er/sie/es
läse 
wir
läsen 
ihr
läset 
sie/Sie
läsen 

Subjunctive II: Past perfect – Konjunktiv II: Plusquamperfekt

ich
hätte gelesen 
du
hättest gelesen 
er/sie/es
hätte gelesen 
wir
hätten gelesen 
ihr
hättet gelesen 
sie/Sie
hätten gelesen 

Subjunctive II: Future simple – Konjunktiv II: Futur I

ich
würde lesen 
du
würdest lesen 
er/sie/es
würde lesen 
wir
würden lesen 
ihr
würdet lesen 
sie/Sie
würden lesen 

Subjunctive II: Future perfect – Konjunktiv II: Futur II

ich
würde gelesen haben 
du
würdest gelesen haben 
er/sie/es
würde gelesen haben 
wir
würden gelesen haben 
ihr
würdet gelesen haben 
sie/Sie
würden gelesen haben 

Imperativ verb of of the irregular verb [lesen]

The imperative (from the Latin imperativus) is a verb form that expresses a command, request or prohibition. In many cases, the use of the imperative can come across as rude and impolite. Therefore, a command is often expressed in a more polite way, using other grammatical means.

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Imperative – Imperativ

du
lies 
ihr
lest 

Participle forms of verb of the irregular verb [lesen]

The participle form (from the Latin participare – ‘to take part’) is an indefinite form of a verb that can also be used in a number of ways:

  • to form compound verb tenses;
  • to form the passive voice;
  • as an adjective;
  • as an alternative to subordinate clauses (sentence condensers);
  • and others.

Participles can also be used as adjectives (participial adjectives), e.g. gekauft – gekauft(-e), verpasst – verpasst(-e), vergangen – vergangen(-e), as well as nouns (verbal nouns), e.g. griff – der Griff.

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Present participle – Partizip Präsens

ich
lesend 

Past participle – Partizip Perfekt

ich
gelesen 





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